From the manufacturing of ammunition to the space program, the United States and Russia always remain competitors to each other. United States space agency NASA and Russia’s ROSCOSMOS are some of the oldest space agencies in the world. Before 1992, ROSCOSMOS was part of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and was not fully a centralized agency. This Russian agency is among the most successful agencies that are active for many years. ROSCOSMOS is fully funded by the Russian government and participates in many international space programs. Through its brief history this Russian space agency has achieved many space objectives and thus the following amazing facts about Russian Agency born.
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1. ROSCOSMOS is a government-sponsored space agency that runs under the Russian Federation.
2. The full form of the agency is ROSCOSMOS State Corporation of Space Activities.
3. Before 2015 the agency was named ROSCOSMOS. On 28th December 2015 ROSCOSMOS was combined with United Rocket and Space Corporation and became a fully centralized national corporation thorough a presidential decree.
4. Since the Soviet-era Russian scientists are involved in multiple explorations. At the earlier stage of the Soviet Union the Soviet Space Program was not a centralized agency but after the decomposition of the Soviet Union the Russian Space Agency was created on 25th February,1992. The first president of the agency was Yuri Koptev. He was an engineer of a Russian Aerospace Company- NPO Lavochkin.
5. The first space station was built during Soviet Union time. There are a total of seven space stations were built under the Salyut program. The first one was Salyut 1 which was also the world’s first space station that was launched on 19th April 1971.
6. At present there are five segments managed by five space agencies that are working on International National Space Station- ROSCOSMOS, European Space Agency, NASA, JAXA, and CSA. Among those segments the Russian segment is known as the Russian Orbital Segment.
7. On 12th July 2000 a Russian Module – Zvezda was launched by a Proton rocket to support the Life Support System of the ISS and sent a two crew quarter for the Russian segment. Currently Zvezda also known as Zvezda Service Module is serving as a structural and functional part of ISS.
8. International Space Station is divided into two main segments- the Russian Orbital Segment(ROS) and the United States orbital Segment(USOS). The Russian segment is controlled by ROSCOSMOS.
9. When ISS was built with two different parts, its first module was Zarya. It was also known as Functional cargo Block. Zarya was built by a Russian company and owned by the United States. It was launched by a Proton-K rocket on 20th November 1998 and during the initial stage of the assembly of ISS, Zarya provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance.
10. After Salyut 1, Russians developed another secret space program between 1973 and 1976. Under the Almaz space program total, three space stations were launched – Salyut 2, Salyut 3, and Salyut 4.
11. In 1977 Russian space agency built another space station named Salyut 6. Salyut 6 was a three crewed space station and spend a total of 1764 days in orbit.
12. After Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and the most powerful Mir space station was launched.
13. To date Mir was the most powerful space station in lower Earth orbit. Mir was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It was active from 1986 to 2001 and stayed there for 3644 days. At that time Mir became the first space station that spends the longest days in the space, until it was suppressed by ISS in 2010. During its stay in space it served as a space research laboratory in biology, human biology, astronomy, physics, and many experiments that could help to occupy the space permanently.
14. For crew transportation to the ISS, a cargo spacecraft- Soyuz has been used many times. It was commissioned during the Soviet era and served under the Soviet Space Program, but after the dissolution of the Soviet Union it started working under ROSCOSMOS. Soyuz is the first cargo spacecraft that used the maximum number of times for crew transportation to the ISS. Earlier in 1966 it started its journey by traveling without the crew and for the first time in 1967 it was used to transport crew members to the ISS. Soyuz spacecraft is still in use and working perfectly.
15. ROSCOSMOS headquarter is situated in Moscow city and its main control RKA Mission Control Center is situated in Korolyov, Moscow Oblast.
16. The training center for the astronauts is in Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center which is situated in Star City, Moscow Oblast.
17. Baikonur Cosmodrome and Vostochny Cosmodrome are the two primary launch site of ROSCOSMOS.
18. Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world’s first Launch Facility in Kazakhstan. During the Soviet era this place of Kazakhstan was leased by the Russian government.
19. Baikonur Cosmodrome was the place from where the first artificial satellite of the world- Sputnik 1 was launched. World’s first crewed spaceflight Vostok 1 was also launched from this Launch facility on 12th April 1961.
20. Resurs P is an Earth Observation Satellite developed by ROSCOSMOS. It is developed to take high-resolution images of the space and Earth.
a) The mastermind behind the development of world’s first satellite Sputnik 1 was a Russian engineer Sergei Korolev.
b) Yuri Gagarin was the first human space traveler.
c) Astronaut Alexei Leonov was the first person to spend 12 minutes and 9 seconds outside of the capsule and conducted a spacewalk during Voskhod 2 mission.
d) Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was the first female astronaut to flown into space. On 16th July 1963 while on a solo mission by Vostok 6 spaceflight, she rotated Earth 48 times and spend three days in space.
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